Device/IoT-Centric Security Research Actions
We provide a discussion on relevant research actions that need to be taken to mitigate the threats, gaps, and challenges previously identified and reported in Appendix A.1 of document D4.3.
- RA1 – ML/DL-based solutions. Machine Learning (ML) and Deep Learning (DL) techniques can be used for tackling security issues in IoT devices by providing embedded intelligence. The reason behind this lies in the fact that IoT networks generate vast amounts of real-time data that can be utilized by ML and DL techniques to offer insights and aid in decision-making. Among many other uses, ML and DL have the potential of leveraging privacy and access control issues, as well as reinforcing capabilities of attack detection, intrusion detection, malicious code identification, and malware analysis capabilities in IoT environments. There has been already significant work research done in all of the aforementioned areas, with significant caveats remaining to be solved. For attack detection, Rathore and Park  proposed a semi-supervised scheme based on Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) that relies on Fuzzy C-Means (FCM), while DL-based attack detection systems based on fog architecture were promoted in the works of Diro and Chilamkurti  and Abeshu and Chilamkurti . SVM showed to be the best performing ML algorithm in detecting DoS attacks, as shown in the number of research endeavors . ML and DL neural network algorithms such as ANN , RNN , and Random Neural Networks (RaNN)  have been commonly experimented on for intrusion detection. Lastly, algorithms including SVM, PCA, RNN, as well as some novel algorithms, such as Learning-based Deep Q Network (LDQN)  have been used in an attempt to identify malicious activities affecting IoT. However, ML and DL come with significant bottlenecks that still need to be addressed. Choosing the most suitable model and labeling the training data remain cumbersome tasks to accomplish, while performance overhead remains an issue due to the resource-constrained nature of the IoT devices. Moreover, anomalies created by various ML and DL algorithms pose an issue for critical infrastructure and real-time applications. When it comes to large IoT ecosystems, consisting of a multitude of different devices, more advanced ML capabilities that could grant stronger security features are necessary. Other challenges that require significant effort include scarcity of training datasets publicly available, imbalanced data in the time that attacks take place, merging available public datasets, and legislative challenges related to validation and certification of different IoT components and varying GDPR regulations. To solve the existing issues of ML approaches for securing IoT, more research endeavor is required on strengthening DL and Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL) definitions to bolster their performances in terms of computational complexity, efficiency, and parameter tuning. Besides that, more novel hybrid learning techniques and data visualization techniques are still required for better data interpretation .
Threats: T1.1.3 – Inadequate design and planning or incorrect adaptation in the critical scenario – COVID19, T1.2.1 – Interception of information, T1.2.2 – Unauthorized acquisition of information (data breach), T1.3.1 – Device modification, T1.3.2 – Extraction of private information, T1.3.3 – Lack of control on safety implications – COVID19, T1.4.1 – Identity fraud, T1.4.2 – Denial of service, T1.4.3 – Malicious code/software/activity, T1.4.4 – Misuse of assurance tools, T1.4.5 – Failures of business process, T1.4.6 – Code execution and injection (unsecured APIs)
Gaps: G1.4 – Gaps on diagnosis and response capabilities, G1.9 – Product lifecycle management leakages, G1.11 – Gaps in handling critical scenarios, G1.13 – Gaps on device management and the use of outdated components
- RA2 – Blockchain-based solutions. Currently, IoT devices experience an ununiform and inconsistent data flow as a result of both conflicting protocols and unstandardized designs. Updates to IoT devices are also non-compliant, making IoT devices entail constant maintenance. This is since the majority of the IoT vendors do not follow any access control or configurations standards, but rather create their proprietary ecosystems. Moreover, IoT infrastructure is centralized and utilizes a client/server model, rendering connected devices to be vulnerable to a wide array of potential attacks. Even though centralized infrastructure works considerably well in small-scale ecosystems, it is not suitable for large-scale projects. Hence, there is an increasing need to conduct research on the ways how to incorporate decentralized solutions, particularly blockchain technology in the IoT environment. The benefits of the blockchain, including its immutability, verifiability, and efficiency could help in overcoming current IoT issues. In the other words, blockchain-based solutions could keep an immutable record of IoT devices and improve their security properties through the use of smart contracts. So far, blockchain-based solutions for IoT security have been considered in several works, but there is still room for improvement. One of the first such endeavors has been carried out by the H2020 project “Secure and Safe Internet of Things” (SerIoT) to optimize the IoT platforms’ and networks’ security through the combination of blockchain technology, fog computing, honeypots, and SDN routers . It considers a holistic approach to defining an end-to-end IoT network ecosystem with a multi-layered schema for different IoT layers. Their ultimate plan is to deploy their technology into IoT applications to accomplish horizontal IoT and end-to-end security in IoT platforms throughout Europe. To achieve secure mutual authentication and grant auditability and confidentiality, Lin et al.  proposed a blockchain-based system for enforcing fine-grained access policies. The authors combined blockchain with other technologies including MAC, ABS, and CL-MRE to achieve high resilience against DoS, replay, MiTM, impersonation, and modification attacks. However, the proposed model remains a concept and requires further optimization and implementation in the real-world setting. More recently, in 2020, Mohanty et al.  proposed a Lightweight integrated Blockchain (ELIB) model and deployed it in a smart home environment. Their model consists of three optimizations, namely lightweight consensus algorithm, certificateless cryptography, and Distributed Throughput Management (DTM) scheme. This model also still has to be optimized from the energy consumption standpoint and yet has to be deployed on a wider scale. On the other hand, Singh et al.  proposed a Blockchain-enabled Intelligent IoT Architecture with Artificial Intelligence (BlockIoTIntelligence) system for IoT applications and techniques to support big data analysis. Despite achieving CIA, non-repudiation, and secrecy to a certain extent, the authors did not manage to accomplish optimal performance in the terms of latency.
Threats: T1.1.1 – Information leakage/sharing due to human errors, T1.3.1 – Device modification, T1.3.3 – Lack of control on safety implications – COVID19, T1.4.2 – Denial of service, T1.4.3 – Malicious code/software/activity, T1.5.1 – Violation of laws or regulations, T1.4.5 – Failures of business process, T1.6.1 – Skill shortage, T1.6.2 – Lack of strong cyber hygiene practices – COVID19
Gaps: G1.1 – Gaps on design, G1.2 – Gaps on protection mechanisms adoption and hardening, G1.5 – Lack of awareness and knowledge (skill shortage), G1.6 – Lack of interoperability, G1.8 – Fragmentation in security approaches and regulations, G1.10 – Gaps in cyber hygiene practices
- RA3 – Novel authentication schemes. As suggested by El-hajj et al. , IoT authentication factors can be classified based on the following factors: i) authentication factor (based on the identity and the context of usage), ii) use of tokens (token-based and non-token based authentication schemes), iii) authentication procedure (one-way, two-way, and three-way authentication schemes), iv) authentication architecture (distributed and centralized authentication schemes), v) IoT layer (perception, network, and application layer authentication schemes), vi) hardware (implicit hardware-based and explicit hardware-based authentication schemes). When it comes to smart grids, the current trend seems to be leaning toward schemes based on Hash-based Message Authentication Code (HMAC), as it can be perceived from the several research efforts , whereas novel schemes based on Physical Unclonable Function (PUF) are prevalent in smart RFID , smart homes  and generic IoT applications . Future research endeavours in those fields should try to combine both hardware and software solutions to further bolster security. Moreover, IoT applications for smart grids and VANETs, location, and privacy should be considered. Research on wireless sensor networks recently focused on accomplishing mutual authentication  through lightweight authentication schemes, such as Hash operations and ECC. The effectiveness of the existing protocols and schemes should be further analyzed against malicious activities and especially omnipresent DoS attacks. Moreover, future authentication schemes and protocols should be designed with low communication overhead and computation costs in mind, especially for resource-constrained IoT environments. At the same time, novel authentication schemes should be able to operate with the ever-growing number of nodes without having to be modified. Finally, as a general rule, authentication schemes should cater to all three IoT architecture layers, namely application, network, and perception layer.
Threats: T1.1.1 – Information leakage/sharing due to human errors, T1.1.2 – Inadequate design and planning or incorrect adaptation, T1.1.3 – Inadequate design and planning or incorrect adaptation in the critical scenario – COVID19, T1.2.1 – Interception of information, T1.2.2 – Unauthorized acquisition of information (data breach), T1.4.1 – Identity fraud, T1.4.2 – Denial of service, T1.4.4 – Misuse of assurance tools, T1.4.7 – Device hijacking, T1.4.8 – Social engineering
Gaps: G1.1 – Gaps on design, G1.2 – Gaps on protection mechanisms adoption and hardening, G1.3 – Gaps on authorization and authentication, G1.7 – Lack of security-dedicated budget, G1.12 – Gaps on insufficient data protection (communication and storage)
There are three main areas in which future IoT cybersecurity research actions should be focused, namely ML/DL-based solutions, blockchain-based solutions, and development of the novel authentication schemes. ML and DL have the potential of mitigating privacy and access control issues and boosting capabilities of attack detection, intrusion detection, malicious code identification, and malware analysis in the IoT environments. Even though algorithms such as SVM, PCA, RNN, and ANN have already shown a certain degree of success in intrusion detection and identifying malicious activities, this area of research still requires significant effort to reach its full potential. Furthermore, more research on solving issues related to choosing appropriate training data, as well as parameter tuning, performance overhead, anomalies, and data validation and certification has to be conducted. The main properties of blockchain, including immutability, verifiability, and efficiency can aid in thwarting a large number of attacks targeting IoT systems. Besides that, blockchain solutions can help vendors to define configuration standards and access control for IoT. Future research endeavours must focus on further improving existing solutions in terms of performance, latency, and energy consumption. When it comes to the authentication schemes, current research trends lean towards lightweight authentication schemes, such as HMAC, PUF, ECC, and hash-based schemes. Future research should continue its focus on designing authentication schemes and protocols with low communication overhead and low computational costs that can operate with the growing number of nodes without having to be modified.
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